[American educational concept] 6

If we must give a real purpose to university education, my point of view is to cultivate a good citizen in society. The art of university education is the art of social life whose purpose is to make people adapt to this world. On the one hand, university education should not focus on certain occupations, on the other hand, it should not create a hero and cultivate genius. In fact, the genius of Albert can not be made artificially, heroic ideas are also known. The university is not the birthplace of poets, immortal writers and school founders, nor colonial leaders or conquerors’ training institutes. The university is not committed to creating a host of Aristotelian, Newton, Napoleonic, Washington, Raphael, and Shakespearean giants, though these natural masterpieces have previously appeared in the college walls. In addition, universities should not be content with the training of critics, experimenters, economists and engineers albeit within the context of university education. University education is a great and ordinary way to a great and ordinary goal. The purpose of university education is to enhance the knowledge and atmosphere of the society, cultivate the citizens of the people, deliver the national taste, provide real axioms for impetuous publics, provide definite targets for public ideals, expand the thinking bank of the times and inject calm thinking, Promote the exercise of political power and enhance the quality of interpersonal communication. University education should be managed to recognize its own views and judgments, and correctly play, eloquently described, strongly stressed. University education should teach people to see the true colors of things and grasp the key points directly. They should teach the people to unite their minds, find out the sophistry and discard their irrelevances. University education prepares people for any position they can, as easily as possible to master any subject.

In addition, he said:

How to adapt oneself to others, how to convey one’s own ideas to others, how to influence others, how to understand each other and mutual tolerance should be taught in university education. He is in harmony with anyone in any group and has something in common with anyone. He understands when to speak and when to be silent; he is good at talking, he is good at speaking; and when he has nothing to say, he can raise questions moderately and receive his teachings; he is always eager, but from He does not interfere with others; he is a pleasant partner, a friend whom one can depend on; he understands when to be serious and when to frolic; he takes the liberty of wit and playful without losing elegance and seriousness Granville. He lives in the world and calm, full of indifference. He possesses a gift of talent to spare him as he serves the public, and gives him spiritual support after he leaves. If there is such a gift, even if wealthy, nor vulgar; if such a talent, even after setbacks, full of disappointment, but also its own charm. It is the goal pursued by university education that aims to educate all of these people about skills that are just as useful as acquiring fortune and acquiring healthier skills, albeit comparatively hard to grasp, Difficult to determine, more difficult to fully possess.

He said that the connotation of citizens is very rich, and Newman’s goal of this education is to cultivate qualified citizens whose thinking has had a great impact on the United States.

Followed by Dewey. Dewey is a pragmatist educational thinker in the United States. His educational thinking education is life, and his school, that is, the social educational thought, has profoundly influenced American education. In fact, Dewey is still a populist educator, and he firmly maintains that education is to train qualified civilians. He propagated the idea of ​​populist education and proposed two elements of populist education: developing the wisdom of individuality and developing the habit of collaboration. He strongly advocates education to cultivate civilians and citizens who are full of personality and cooperation.

Principals of some famous universities in the United States have also upheld this view. As former president Harvard University Dr. Babb said, colleges and universities have eight functions, namely, the goal of higher education is: to improve communication skills; to develop analytical skills; to strengthen the ability to solve problems; to develop the ability to value judgments; to improve social interaction and interaction Ability to develop personal and environmental understanding of the individual to improve the ability to understand the world today; develop arts and humanities knowledge. This is the view of the “enlightened education” (or “liberal education”) of the United States. According to this view, the starting point of education is human beings, and fate is still human. Education has the responsibility of serving the community, but the ultimate goal is to serve man. Dr. Marlett, the former president of the University of Miami, further believes that the fundamental responsibility of “enlightened education” is For “people” and “citizens.”

Six, pay great attention to the cultivation of humanistic spirit. Americans believe that the humanistic spirit is essentially a spirit of freedom, self-consciousness and criticism, judging from good and evil, beauty and ugliness, right and wrong judgments, tolerance, respect and cooperation, and even harmony between man and nature, Are humanistic spirit. The American schools and American professors I studied and interviewed, including the American families, attach great importance to cultivating children’s humanities and humanities. In the 19th century, once the United States studied the principles and the university spirit of Humboldt University in Germany, Humboldt University in Europe is a famous university that attaches great importance to cultivating the humanistic spirit of students. Until now, Humboldt University still put humanities science and humanistic spirit of students in a very important position. Humboldt University learned the lessons of World War II. During World War II, Hitler incited ethnic hatred, massacred Jews and killed 6 million Jews. Some prominent Humboldt scientists have even helped Hitler kill people, just as softly. Therefore, even if a person is a scientist, there is not enough academic and academic professional standards, but also the conscience of the society. Humanities and humanities must also be possessed.

I went to American families, schools, many parents and students to say that they had to read some well-known articles carefully. For example, “I have a dream” mentioned above. For another article, there is an article entitled ” People, the famous scholar Fang Long published in 1925 “tolerance.” Americans believe that “tolerance” and “preface” is a kind of beautiful language that cultivates tolerance. In the Preamble, Fang Long summarized the history of human progress, elaborated the history of the development of human thought, explained the emancipation of thought, advocated tolerance toward dissent, and condemned the evil in suppressing new ideas. Americans think that children read this article on tolerance, how much will leave some impression about tolerance, may affect his life. A professor at Stanford University said that tolerance is the humanistic spirit one must have and more important than freedom.

Seven, independent thinking, questioning everything. American education believes that freedom is the mother of creation. Americans, especially American schools and education professors, think it is the soul of American education to think independently and question everything. Here may refer to January 24, 2004, CCTV Channel 2 “Dialogue” on the head of Yale University, Mr. Levin and Peking University Xu Zhihong principals dialogue materials. From the request made by President Levin on the students and teachers at Yale University, it can be seen that the educational philosophy in the United States places a great deal of emphasis on thinking independently and questioning everything.

Mr. Levin said, “It’s about asking students to question anything, whether you’re from this school’s teacher, from your classmates, or from what you read in the book. The question of curiosity, you should be willing to challenge you to hear the second point is to learn, although you should first ask questions, but need to study reading, get more information to answer these questions, study hard. Think of your own conclusions and learn how to think independently. ”

For teachers, Mr. Levin said:

“First, a clear exchange. Without this quality, it would be a common teacher flaw, they are very familiar with the teaching materials, they assume that students are also very familiar with these. They are usually higher Students are confused by the requirements of students, teachers are expressed in professional language too early, and students do not understand them well. I think we should try hard to work with different levels of students clearly and clearly in the learning process Encourage others, we should say that if you are a teacher, you choose the lifelong occupation of education.Why should students learn? You should give them a good reason.So you have to find ways to motivate your students, Let them feel the passion you had when choosing this profession.Fifthly, there is no doubt that we should encourage independent thinking.In short, we should ask students to question everything, ask teachers to communicate clearly, and make efforts to study hard for students. Encourage students to think independently and encourage teachers to think independently. “