Ten ideas

people oriented
Nowadays, in the 21st century, society has shifted from focusing on science and technology to developing a people-oriented society. Education, as a lofty undertaking to foster and develop qualified personnel needed by society to promote social development and improvement, should naturally embody the people-oriented spirit of the times. Therefore, modern education emphasizes people-oriented, focuses on the whole process of education and teaching in the whole process of education and teaching, focusing more on people, understanding people, respecting people, protecting people, and enhancing and developing people’s human spirits. It pays more attention to people’s realistic needs and future development Develop and tap people’s own endowments and potential, pay more attention to their own values ​​and their realization, and devote themselves to cultivating people’s self-esteem, self-confidence, self-love, self-reliance and self-reliance consciousness, and continuously improve people’s spiritual and cultural qualities and quality of life. Improve people’s ability to survive and develop, and promote their own development and improvement. In view of this, modern education has become an important means of enhancing national cohesion and has become the basis for comprehensive national strength and is increasingly integrated into the trend of the times, attracting much attention and people’s attention.
All-round development
Therefore, it is more concerned with the integrity and comprehensiveness of human development. In a macroscopic view, it is a national education oriented to all citizens, pays attention to the all-round development of the entire nation and vigorously promotes the development of people as a whole. Improve and develop the entire nation’s ideological and moral qualities and scientific and cultural qualities, raise the national knowledge innovation and technological innovation capability, and enhance the comprehensive national strength including national cohesion as the fundamental objective; at the microscopic level, it promotes the promotion of every student’s morality in Germany , Intellectual, physical, aesthetic, labor and other aspects of all-round development and improvement, creating a comprehensive development of personnel as their responsibility. This requires people to realize the education concept from the elite education to the mass education, from the professional education to the general education, in the education method to take Germany, Chile, the United States, labor and other education simultaneously, the overall education Education strategy.
Quality education
Modern education abandoned the traditional education emphasis on knowledge imparting and absorbing education ideas and methods, pay more attention to the transformation of knowledge in the process of education and ability to internalize the good qualities of people, emphasizing knowledge, ability and quality in the overall structure of the personnel Interaction, Dialectical Unity and Harmonious Development. In view of the defects of traditional education, such as knowledge transfer, light practical ability, heavy test scores and light overall quality, modern education emphasizes forging and comprehensive quality training and training of students’ practical abilities, and advocates that ability and quality are more important and stable than knowledge , More lasting elements of the overall quality of student training and improvement as the center of education and education to grasp, to help students learn to learn and strengthen the quality of the basic education goals, aimed at the full development of students’ qualities of potential, so that knowledge, Ability, quality and harmonious development, improve people’s overall standard of development.

The characteristics and concept of educational philosophy

To sum up the author’s own experience in the study of educational philosophy, we can sort out the basic characteristics of the educational philosophy as follows: (1) Educational philosophy is the formation of the concept or concept of education for the main body of education and its phenomena, and is rational (2) The concept of education includes the concept of “good education” of the main body of education about the value orientation or tendency of “education should be”; (3) The concept of education is not an educational reality but comes from the consideration of educational reality , Is the main body of education conscious of the reality of education. Therefore, in theory, they are the clear understanding of education about the ideological carriers, that is, the concept holders. (4) The concept of education is a universal concept that has a wide extension and reflects the commonalities of concepts in activities such as educational thinking Or supernatural concepts, such as educational ideas, educational concepts, educational opinions, educational opinions, educational awareness, educational rationality, educational beliefs and education creeds are all concepts. The concept itself also contains the commonness of the above concepts. In addition, the concept of education is also manifested in the external form of the above concepts to show that it is both abstract and intuitive. Such as education purpose, education mission, education purpose, education ideal, education goal, education requirement, education principle and so on; (5) The education idea is in education practice, and has the orientation of guiding.
In view of the recognition of the basic characteristics of the above educational concept, we can make the following determination on the concept of education: The concept of education is the rational cognition and subjective requirement for the “education should be” formed by the main body of education in teaching practice and educational thinking. In his book Educational Language, I. Scheffler, a well-known analytical education scholar and a philosopher and Harvard philosopher, believes there are three kinds of declarative statements: (Note: Qu Baokui eds., “The Collection of Pedagogy, Education and Pedagogy Volume “, People’s Education Press, 1993 edition, pp. 31-37.) (1) The definition of regulation, refers to the definition of creation, that is, the author under the definition. The terms that are required to be defined in the same work always indicate the meaning of such a provision; (2) a descriptive definition, which refers to an appropriate description of the object being spoken or the method of use; (3) Explain clearly or implicitly “what should be.” Our definition of educational philosophy should belong to the definition of programmatic definition and programmatic synthesis. The concept of education can be either systematic or non-systematic, single or independent rational concept or concept, depending on the main body of education, “education should be” that is, the reality of education and research level, and their need to guide educational practice . Both systematic and non-systematic educational concepts have an impact on the educational practice of educational subjects.

General introduction to educational philosophy

First introduced several kinds of authoritative information obtained from the “educational concept” community. [1] The professor defined the concept of education in the article “The Idea of ​​Modern University Education” in analyzing the connection and difference between educational ideas and educational thoughts and educational laws: “Educational philosophy is the educational ideal pursued by people and it is Based on the laws of education. “He added:” The scientific concept of education is a kind of ‘visionary’ that correctly reflects the nature of education and the characteristics of the times and scientifically specifies the way forward, “and of course , “The concept of education is not the reality of education, and the realization of the concept of education is a long-term struggle …” (Note: Wang Jisheng: “The Idea of ​​Modern University Education”, “Liaoning Higher Education Research,” 1999, No. 1.) Professor Wang Jisheng is to grasp the idea of ​​education with the ideal of education and the foresight of education. Professor Li Ping and others in the “confusion of education where – the reflection of the concept of education,” a text that: “Education concept is an ideal, eternal, spiritual paradigm of educational development. Education concept reflects the educational Essential characteristics, and fundamentally answer why we should do education. “(Note: Li Ping, Zhong Minghua:” where education confusion – reflection on the concept of education “,” Shanghai Higher Education Research “1998 the fifth period.) The so-called education The essential feature is that education is a fundamental characteristic of the practical activities different from other social activities. Therefore, Professor Li Ping proposed the concept of education from the perspective of ontology and epistemology of education, that is, from a basic category of educational philosophy, of. Professor Chen Guisheng’s understanding of the concept of education is very unique, (Note: see Gui Gui-sheng with: “Education Pedagogy” Discrimination “, East China Normal University Press 1997Edition page 4-12.) He” “Education” One book pointed out that in educational pedagogy the concept of “generalization” of educational concepts appeared. This phenomenon was mainly caused by the confusion between the concept of education and the concept of education, especially the concept of education instead of the concept of education. Concept “of confusion, he cited the” curriculum “and” teaching “concept examples to illustrate. In his view, the concept of education is based on the definition of logic rules and is a scientific concept. As a thinking form that reflects the essential nature of an object, the connotation of education can only be defined according to the “state of reality” of the object to which it refers. That is, a generalization of the fait accompli, while the educational philosophy is a judgment of “the proper state of education” and a concept of “good education” that permeates people’s values ​​or values ​​of education. There is no doubt that Professor Chen Gui-sheng’s understanding of the concept of education has captured the soul of the “educational concept” and is very enlightening for us to grasp the essential attribute of the concept of “educational concept.” In his article “On Campus Culture and Social Responsibility,” Ie Yee-yee and his colleagues in this article understand the concept of education in this way: “Educational philosophy refers to the idea that the top executives of schools focus on the future of students and social responsibility, and then take their own values ​​and morals Standards, based on the school held by the beliefs and attitudes. “(Note: Ik, et al:” On campus “and” social responsibility “, cross-strait cross-century university culture development Symposium, May 1999 .) So far, Professor Han Yanming’s research on education philosophy is devoted and painstaking. His research paper put forward in a doctoral dissertation titled “A Probe into the Concept of University” is: “The educational concept is that of educational thinkers and even the entire nation Long-term accumulation and formation of the educational value orientation reflected, embodied and pursued, is an ideal, spiritual, sustained and relatively stable model of education development, with a guiding, forward-looking and normative features. (Note: Han Yanming: “Analysis of University Philosophy”, Xiamen University, 2000 doctoral thesis ) Here, he has a philosophy of education-oriented, forward-looking and normative induction is accurate and meaningful, it makes the difference between people’s educational philosophy is more clear to other concepts.

What is meant by “educational philosophy”?

China’s Encyclopedic Education Volume (1985 edition), compiled by Li Ji, “Education Management Dictionary” (1989), Gu Mingyuan’s “Education Dictionary” (1990 edition) ), The English version of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1993 Edition), did not see the “educational philosophy” of the article. Although we are still at a stage where there is no clear definition of “educational philosophy,” this does not prevent people from using the term “educational philosophy” frequently. This shows that “educational philosophy” has been widely recognized both inside and outside the education sector. To examine literary theories (such books, not a few essays) that openly use the notion of “educational philosophy” and even the subject of “educational concepts”, we find the discovery that most authors evade the use of “educational philosophy” The necessary explanation and definition of the concept itself. There are two reasons for this: First, there are quite a few authors who consider “educational philosophy” just like “educational concepts” and “educational thoughts,” and naturally do not have to interpret it when used as a mature concept. Second, “educational philosophy” really It is a complicated concept similar in meaning to many basic concepts of education but similar in nature but not completely similar and similar. The uncertainty of the boundary of its connotation makes it seem like an all-encompassing concept. Therefore, can only understand, hard to convey. However, it is precisely our lack of discussion of the basic connotation of “educational philosophy” and the failure to accurately understand its meaning. Therefore, it is hard to avoid the widespread and even abusive use of the concept of education. Some writers regard some of the features that reflect or reveal the characteristics of education or teaching activities as well as the characteristics of the subject and object of education as the kinds of educational ideas. Some even include some trend characteristics of education development such as internationalization, legalization and industrialization , Popular, etc. are also included in the concept of education, as if the concept of education is an omnipresent treasure chest. To clarify the vague understanding of “educational philosophy”, only honestly discuss the concept.