First, the federal government uses surveys and macroeconomic goals to influence and promote further education equality and equal access to education throughout the country,
Education Digest “American Education Concept” (http://www.unjs.com). In education, since the 1980s, the United States as the federal government has far-reaching effects on two things.
First, the survey report “The Country is in Crisis: Education Reform is Imperative” was completed in 1983. On August 26, 1981, U.S. Secretary of Education Bell set up the National Education Outstanding Committee, which investigates the quality of education in the United States. The report was submitted in April 1983, which states: “It is both a report to the Minister of Education and an open letter to the American people.”
Why does this report say that the United States is in crisis? The core idea of the report is that in education, the United States has not fully realized the promise of equality for all during the founding of the People’s Republic so the United States is in crisis. The report states: “Some of the promises originally made on this land are in crisis, and the promise is that all people, regardless of their race, class or status, have the right to a fair chance of receiving To maximize the development of their personal spiritual and spiritual power. “The report states:” For a free and democratic society to promote a common culture, especially one that is proud of pluralism and individual freedom It is absolutely necessary to enjoy a high standard of education together. ”
The Report wants people to see that American education is in a dilemma that does not happen overnight. The responsibility for causing such a dilemma is in all aspects. Therefore, to get education out of the woods requires the efforts of the entire community. The result of the educational crisis is that all people are concerned about education, that the entire population is concerned about the quality of education and that education is equitable and educational opportunities are equal.
Second, “the United States 2000: Education Strategy.” In April 1991, Bush, the president of “education”, dished out his plan to rejuvenate U.S. education and put forward six major national education goals toward 21:
By the year 2000, all children in the United States have been prepared to study since they attended school. By 2000, the graduation rate of secondary school students will reach 90% or more. By 2000, all levels of the United States, which have completed four, eight and 12 years of study, Students should have corresponding abilities in the key disciplines such as English, mathematics, science, history and geography. By 2000, the American students’ mathematical and scientific achievements will depend on the world. By the year 2000, all adults in the United States must get rid of blindness But also to master the skills necessary for global economic competition and to transform the rights and responsibilities of citizens. By the year 2000, every school in the United States must be drug-free, non-violent and provide discipline conducive to student learning A well-ordered environment.
In April 1993, Clinton announced “Goal 2000: Educational American Law” and continued with the great reform of education, with the goal increased from 6 to 8, an increase of two. By 2000, the national contingent of teachers should find ways to continually improve their careers Skills and to seize the opportunity to continue to acquire new knowledge and skills to teach American students to prepare for the next century; by 2000, every school should strengthen cooperation with parents, parents should be more Participate in activities to promote children’s social, emotional and academic growth.
This is the eight goals of the famous American education. The core of these eight major ideas is to improve the quality of education in all aspects and to achieve education fairness. President Bush and President Clinton think that if education is not fair, there will be no education quality. To achieve equity in education, we must promote everything from popularizing education, eliminating illiteracy and promoting balanced development among primary and secondary schools, and each school should have good Teachers, all parents should cooperate and so on.
Second, the U.S. president attaches great importance to equality of education and equality of opportunity in education. Many U.S. presidents claim that they are “presidents of education.” Both President George W. Bush and President Clinton mentioned above are just like that. This is not exactly a slogan. There are many measures that have really been taken and are effective. Up until today, when Bush took office in 2000, he proposed an agenda for governance that includes the following: education, taxation, social security, defense and diplomacy, abortion, health care, agro-science and technology and new-born industries, environment and energy, international trade, Gun control and charity. He put education in the first place. At a cost of 46 billion U.S. dollars, Bush lasted 10 years, set a high standard and promoted an education system that promotes personality. He also said that reducing the federal government’s intervention and safeguarding campus security will also examine the educational achievements. A $ 5 billion fund will be rewarded for students with outstanding student performance, and a 5% government grant will be deducted for schools with poor student performance. When the public school frontier in a certain district can not meet the standard for three years, the government will use the federal tax To subsidize students’ parents to send their students to private schools; Bush also encourages more schools to innovate; and to increase university scholarships, the government allocates $ 8 billion to save families $ 5,000 per year in tax-free education. On January 8, 2003, Bush signed the “Do not Let Children Fall Backs Act,” aiming to raise the quality of public primary and secondary schools in the United States and to further promote the citizens’ right to equal education. The Act requires that all Year 3 to 8 students in the country, starting from the 2004-2005 school year, have to receive statewide reading and math exams each year, and each school district must report and compare the test scores of each school. For example, if the performance of the church in the frontier of a school is poor, the students may transfer their studies. If three consecutive years of teaching quality has not improved, the school’s staff will be adjusted. All schools must shorten the gap between the poor and the rich, whites and ethnic minorities. States issued a pledge to make all teachers qualified for appointment within four years. And increased the federal budget for primary and secondary education in 2002 from $ 18.5 billion in 2001 to $ 26.5 billion. And expand the selectivity of schools and students and their parents to promote a balanced development among schools so as to ensure fair education.
Thirdly, the federal government has promulgated some special laws to ensure and promote the equal development of educational equality and educational opportunities. The United States has a relatively sound legal system of education, including the National Defense Education Act, the Genius Education Act, the Adult Education Act, etc. In addition, there are some education laws that address one aspect. For example, in 1862, the Congress passed the Morris Law, giving land to universities and prompting the universities to open their education from the nobility to the public. After the Second World War, a large number of demobilized soldiers were transferred to work, and the Congress passed the “Great Ancestry Law,” so that these people could enter Schools receive higher education, so that the further development of university education toward the popular equality. There is also a law on how to further promote equality in education and how to improve the quality of education, as mentioned above by President George W. Bush to sign the “Do not Let A Child Behind Law.” These bills, the central content of which is to promote equality in education and equal opportunities in education not only in primary and secondary schools but also in universities.
In addition, the U.S. folk also echoed the government and loudly called for the benefits of equality of education and equal opportunities in education from the perspectives of economic benefits and social benefits. The main conclusion of the education research report made by the well-known think-tank Rand in 1999 is that education fairness can create tremendous financial revenue for the government and bring enormous economic benefits to the society.
This long-standing and unremitting pursuit of equality, freedom and equal opportunity by the government and the people makes the education in the United States today more equal to the goal of fairness and equal opportunity. Advocating equality of educational opportunities and fairness of education leads to the diversity and openness of American education (open to people with learning abilities and economic conditions at different levels), international and flexible (people of different nature meet different goals Needs, there is no unified education system in the country, and 50 education systems in 50 states), so that American education can meet the needs of people of different populations and at different levels, ensure fair education and equal opportunity, and can satisfy and fully Give full play to the individual characteristics of different education objects so that education is full of vigor and vitality.
Five, the goal of education is to train qualified citizens. Americans think that, on the whole, schools can not cultivate genius, but cultivate citizens. Citizens have good cultivation and talents. There are two educators influencing the educational philosophy in the United States. One is Newman and the other is Dewey. Both advocate that education is a good citizen to train the community.
First Newman. John Henry Newman was born in 1801 and died in 1890, is a religious leader and educator in Britain. In his “Idea of a University” (translated as “The Ideal of a University”), he argued that the purpose of education is to cultivate a good citizen in society. In this regard, he said two famous words, he said: